I suspect a lot of the elementary teachers use The Courage of Sarah Noble. The book was written in 1954, and as such, has certain phrases and terminology that might be different from what's used today (“indians” instead of “Native Americans”, etc.). But it's still a good story for the early elementary grades, especially for those students starting the transition to chapter books.
There are a number of opportunities to discuss some very basic concepts, like scarcity, choice and available resources. There are some important decisions made in the story, as well, so there is an opening to discuss the choices made and identify the "opportunity cost" as well as the costs and benefits behind each option.
If you're looking for a resource that can help introduce this part of our nation's history, and still give you some spots to slip in some economic concepts, this classic piece of children’s literature may be worth looking into, or if you're already using it, give it another look to try some new things.
I look forward to comments.